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Wednesday, July 22, 2020 | History

2 edition of Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors found in the catalog.

Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

T. C Gorrell

Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors

by T. C Gorrell

  • 202 Want to read
  • 22 Currently reading

Published by Dept. of Energy, [Office of Energy Technology], Savannah River Laboratory, for sale by the National Technical Information Service] in Aiken, S.C, [Springfield, Va .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Actinide elements,
  • Radioactive waste disposal -- South Carolina

  • Edition Notes

    StatementT. C. Gorrell ; prepared for Department of Energy under contract AT(07-2)-1
    SeriesDP ; 1518
    ContributionsSavannah River Laboratory, United States. Dept. of Energy
    The Physical Object
    Pagination48 p. :
    Number of Pages48
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14878726M

    Heavy-water and light-water power reactors can be used for partial transmutation of radwaste. Such transmutation allows us to limit on relatively low level the radiotoxicity accumulated in long-term storage of . Release rates of 15 radionuclides from waste packages expected to result from partitioning and transmutation of Light-Water Reactor (LWR) and Actinide-Burning Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) spent fuel are calculated and compared to release rates from standard LWR spent fuel packages. The release rates are input to a model for radionuclide transport from the proposed geologic repository at .

    Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Jamie Ray Ma Submitted as coursework for Physics , Stanford University, Winter Introduction to Nuclear Waste. Continued development of nuclear fission as a source of energy is blocked by three main fears: potential reactor meltdown, proliferation of weaponizable fuel, and unsolved buildup of nuclear waste. Method Development for Calculating Minor Actinide Transmutation in a Fast Reactor. reactors are very promising because many minor actinides can be loaded and transmutation rates are high compared to light water reactors. With the increase of loaded minor actinides, the neutron spectrum becomes hard and core safety parameters will.

    transmutation reactors: Pu-assisted and minor actinides-only systems. The minor actinide-only burning system appears to be the ultimate fusion transmutation reactor. Because such a transmutation system can destroy the minor actinides generated in 35 LWRs, each of which produces the same thermal power as the transmutation reactor. Effective reactor systems, FR, ADS and MSR, for transmu-tation of minor actinides from high level radioactive waste were compared with each other and MSR was estimated to be able to offer a highly efficient transmutation system. The authors have newly proposed an Integral Molten Salt Fast Reactor (IMSFR) as an enhanced efficiency transmutation.


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Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors by T. C Gorrell Download PDF EPUB FB2

Finally, a nuclear park is built up in which the plutonium + minor actinide production of light water reactors is consumed in advanced fast reactors. The amount of electrical power generated by these fast reactors is ≈20%.

The radiotoxicity reduction achievable can be of a factor 50 with a 1% loss of minor actinides during reprocessing. Transmutation of transuranium elements (TRUs, i.e. actinides minus actinium to uranium) such as the isotopes of plutonium (about 1wt% in the Light Water Reactors ' used nuclear fuel (UNF)) or the minor actinides (MAs, i.e.

neptunium, americium, and curium, about wt% each in LWRs' UNF) has the potential to help solve some problems posed by the management of radioactive waste by reducing.

• Transmutation of the waste actinides would involve a high proportion of a country's nuclear power reactors. • It would make little sense to transmute the waste actinides unless plutonium was also recycled to reactors and burnt as a nuclear fuel.

• The scheme would not be unduly expensive but would probably not be cost-effective. @article{osti_, title = {Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Transmutation of waste actinides in light water reactors book Reactors}, author = {Piet, Steven J and Bays, Samuel E and Pope, Michael A and Youinou, Gilles J}, abstractNote = {From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors.

This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling. The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium.

Partitioning and transmutation (P&T) is a potential complementary route in the management of spent fuel resulting from the generation of nuclear power. It has the potential to open new avenues for long term waste management by eliminating long term radionuclides and their thermal effects and thus reducing the necessity or capacities of disposal.

Thermal reactors have been considered as interim solution for transmutation of minor actinides recycled from spent nuclear fuel.

Various studies have been performed in recent decades to realize this possibility. This paper presents the neutronic feasibility study on transmutation of minor actinides as burnable poison in the VVER LEU (low enriched uranium) fuel assembly. LWR: light water reactor, FPs: Fission products, MAs: minor actinides, ADS: accelerator-driven system for trans-mutation, PGMs: platinum group metals, REs: rare earths.

Shaded boxes designate the main wastes considered in this study. Impact of Partitioning and Transmutation on LWR High-Level Waste Disposal 85 VOL,NO.1,JANUARY F.C. Klaassen's 12 research works with citations and reads, including: Inert Matrix Fuel.

Yoshiharu Sakamura's 47 research works with 1, citations and 1, reads, including: Electrochemical Behaviors of Selenide and Telluride Ions in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts. The transmutation performances of different systems can be compared on the basis of the characteristics of transmutation physics [1, 2].The variation of transmutation behaviour with energy spectrum is illustrated in Fig.

; the fission/capture ratio is compared for dominant actinides in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and SFR (sodium fast reactor) spectra. Abstract. To effectively transmute minor actinides (MAs), which have long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat, fast reactors are very promising because many minor actinides can be loaded and transmutation rates are high compared to light water reactors.

The minor actinide-only burning system appears to be the ultimate fusion transmutation reactor. Because such a transmutation system can destroy the minor actinides generated in 35 LWRs, each of which produces the same thermal power as the transmutation reactor.

However, a Pu-assisted transmutation reactor may achieve the same thermal power at a. These actinides can be transmuted to shorter-lived isotopes to reduce the decay heat period or consumed as fuel in a CANDU ® reactor. Many of the design features of the CANDU reactor make it uniquely adaptable to actinide transmutation.

The small, simple fuel bundle simplifies the fabrication and handling of active fuels. Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage.

Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear.

transmutation of minor actinides with a PBR, as proposed by BNL. The concept of transmutation using critical reactors has been studied for several decades; indeed, the United States was a leader in the field in the s. Early in the commercialization of LWRs in the United States, the U.S.

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the nuclear. The minor actinides are the actinide elements in used nuclear fuel other than uranium and plutonium, which are termed the major minor actinides include neptunium (element 93), americium (element 95), curium (element 96), berkelium (element 97), californium (element 98), einsteinium (element 99), and fermium (element ).

The most important isotopes of these elements in spent. In the past several years there has been a renewed interest in sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology for the purpose of destroying transuranic waste (TRU) produced by light water reactors (LWR).

The utility of SFRs as waste burners is due to the fact that higher neutron energies allow all of the actinides, including the minor actinides (MA), to contribute to fission.

The integral fast reactor (IFR, originally advanced liquid-metal reactor) is a design for a nuclear reactor using fast neutrons and no neutron moderator (a "fast" reactor).IFR would breed more fuel and is distinguished by a nuclear fuel cycle that uses reprocessing via electrorefining at the reactor site.

IFR development began in and the U.S. Department of Energy built a prototype, the. The European Union project “Plutonium and Minore Actinide Waste Management” (PuMA) is the origin for the used reference reactor geometry, the fuel structure as well as the nuclide densities in the Plutonium and Minor Actinides fuel.

The reactor design of this project is almost identical to the South African reactor concept with MW_th.

The transmutation of actinides using an LWR, ALMR, or ATW could reduce the doses from repository water pathway releases. To the extent that reducing conditions dominate within or very close to the waste package, the actinides are expected to be insoluble and the doses so small that transmutation would have little effect.Abstract.

Heavy- and light-water power reactors can be used for partial transmutation of nuclear wastes, thereby making it possible to limit the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in storage sites for spent nuclear fuel to relatively low levels.Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum.

For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution.